GrubOUT® U2 Research


Research technician examining an endophyte sample

Cropmark has an intensive endophyte research and development programme aimed at developing unique new animal-safe endophytes which provide host plants tolerance of a broad spectrum of insect pests.

 

The GrubOUT® U2 endophyte is the result of over 15 years of research and testing.

GrubOUT® U2 Research findings summarised

  • Improved protection of host grasses against grass grub larvae, black beetle adults and larvae, porina caterpillar, black field cricket, Argentine stem weevil, pasture mealy bug, root aphid, red headed pasture cockchafer and some forms of wireworms.
  • Improved persistence against pasture insect pests.
  • Safe to sheep, cattle and deer.
  • Lamb live weight gains equivalent to that of AR1 containing grass – and that is exciting because AR1 has been shown to be an animal safe endophyte with higher livestock performance.
Some of the published research is listed below. But there is much more available. If you would like further information, then contact us.

Bibliography

Patchett B,  Gooneratne SR, Fletcher L, Chapman RB (2011).
Seasonal changes in leaf and stem loline alkaloids in meadow fescue.  Crop and Pasture Science 62: 603-609

Patchett BJ, Chapman RB, Fletcher LR, Gooneratne SR (2008).
Endophyte infected Festuca pratensis containing loline alkaloids deter feeding by Listronotus bonariensis.  NZ Plant Protection 61: 205-209

SR Gooneratne, BJ Patchett, M Wellby and LR Fletcher (2012).
Excretion of loline alkaloids in urine and faeces of sheep dosed with meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) seed containing high concentrations of loline alkaloids. NZ Vet J 60(3): 176-182

Patchett BJ, Gooneratne SR, Chapman RB (2011).
Effects of loline-producing endophyte-infected meadow fescue ecotypes on New Zealand grass grub (Costelytra zealandica). NZ J AgRes 54(4): 303-313.

Popay AJ, Tapper BA, Podmore C (2009).
Endophyte-infected meadow fescue and loline alkaloids affect Argentine stem weevil . NZ Plant Protection 62:19-27.

Popay AJ, Townsend RJ, and Fletcher LR (2003).
The effect of endophyte (Neotyphodium uncinatum) in meadow fescue on grass grub larvae. NZ Plant Protection 56: 123-128.

Popay AJ, and Lane GA (2000).
The effect of crude extracts  containing loline alkaloids on two NZ insect pests. (The Grassland Conference. 4th International Neotyphodium/grass interactions Symposium, Soest (Germany) Sept 2000 ed. Volker Paul and Peter Dapprich pp 471-475.

Jensen JG, Popay AJ,  Tapper BA (2009).
Argentine stem weevil adults are affected by meadow fescue endophyte and its loline alkaloids. NZ Plant Protection 62:12-18.

Barker GM (2011) Reports 101,102,103,104,105 to Cropmark Seeds Ltd.
Assays and field evaluations of Neotyphodium uncinatum infected loline containing meadow fescue x ryegrass hybrids with black beetle and red headed cock chafer adults and larvae.

Patchett B,  Gooneratne SR, Fletcher L, Chapman RB (2008).
Root loline concentration in endophyte-infected meadow fescue (Festuca Pratensis) is increased by grass grub (Costelytra Zealandica) attack.

Barker GM (2011) Report 134.
Response of wingless grasshopper to artificial diets and seed containing loline alkaloids.
[ Download the report ]

Barker GM (2017) Reports 173 & 178 for Cropmark Seeds Ltd.
Response of wireworms (Elateridae) to loline concentration in the diet.

G.M. Barker, B.J. Patchett, T.J. Gillanders, G.S. Brown, S.J.Y. Montel and N.E. Cameron.
Feeding and oviposition by Argentine stem weevil on Epichloë uncinata-infected, loline-containing Festulolium.
[ Download the report ]

GM Barker.
Strategies for maximising pasture establishment in the presence of grass grub, black beetle and porina: Key points to consider in formulating recommendations and advice on establishment of pasture cultivars.
[ Download the report ]

GM Barker.
Evaluation of Epichloë uncinata-infected Festulolium for management of wireworms (Elateridae): 1. Response of wireworms to loline concentration in the diet.
[ Download the report ]
 
GM Barker. 
Evaluation of Epichloë uncinata-infected Festulolium for management of wireworms (Elateridae): 2. Response of wireworms to Epichloë-infected swards and soil amendments varying in loline concentration.
[ Download the report ]

Gary Barker.
Effects of Neotyphodium uncinatum infected, loline-containing, meadow fescue–ryegrass hybrid grasses on the feeding behaviour of black beetle and red-headed pasture cockchafer larvae.
[ Download the report ]

Gary Barker
Large-plot field evaluation of Neotyphodium uncinatum infected, loline-containing, meadow fescue–ryegrass hybrid grasses in pest-prone areas in Gippsland, Victoria.
[ Download the report ]

Gary Barker
Effects of Neotyphodium uncinatum infected, loline-containing, meadow fescue–ryegrass hybrid grasses on the feeding behaviour of black beetle and red-headed pasture cockchafer. 2. Laboratory assays with adult black beetle.
[ Download the report ]

Gary Barker
Effects of Neotyphodium uncinatum infected, loline-containing, meadow fescue–ryegrass hybrid grasses on the feeding behaviour of black beetle and red-headed pasture cockchafer. 3. Assessment of incidence of black beetle adult damage to seedlings in Cropmark Seeds cultivar evaluation trials at Silverdale Road, Hamilton.
[ Download the report ]
 

Plant Variety Rights & Intellectual Property

Cropmark Seeds Ltd owns all rights registered in New Zealand under the Plant Variety Rights Act 1987 for GrubOUT® U2, together with all copyright, trademarks and other intellectual property rights (whether capable of being registered or not in New Zealand or any other jurisdiction). We reserve all rights in this respect.

Disclaimer

Whilst we have used all reasonable endeavours to ensure the information contained here-in is based on current and accurate research and research findings, Cropmark Seeds Ltd cannot provide a warranty to such effect. We will not be liable for any claims, damages, losses (including without limitation, loss of income, profits, savings, goodwill or business opportunity), costs or expenses of any kind, or for any direct or consequential losses which arise from the use of any seed supplied by Cropmark Seeds Ltd.

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